Science Behind How a Generator Works

The Science Behind How a Generator Works

A generator is a device which generates electricity by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. The fuel used for making power includes coal, oil, wind, natural gas and other sources. The complexity of the device increases with the increase in the output. The generators can be classified into three types; inverters, portable generators and standby generators. The generator works on faraday’s laws which states that whenever a conductor is placed in a magnetic field induces an electromagnetic field. The two primary elements of the generator are the motion of conductor placed in the magnetic field and a magnetic field.

The Working of a Generator

Science Behind How a Generator WorksIf you want to understand how a generator works, then we need to know what components make the generator and the basic principle on which it operates. According to Faraday’s law, any object which passes through a magnetic field is capable of generating electricity. Generators are made of copper materials and powerful magnets to create an electromagnetic field.

In the early years, the generators are attached to generators or hand crank, which triggers the movement. The generators were used to power homes, and turbines were required to run the generators to produce hydroelectricity. Today generators have come a long way and are used for a whole range of different things. From running the electricity for a whole house to generators used for camping to new technology with inverter generators that are super efficient and ultra quiet to run.

The generators consist of magnets with the magnetic field around triggers electric current every time it rotates. The continuous movement of the conductor generates a regular supply of electricity.

It is quite evident that the generator directly does not produce electrical energy but converts mechanical energy supplied to it with the help of moving electrical charges in the wire. The electric charges deliver the output as electricity.

Example

The working of the generator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy can be explained using a water pump example. The water pump is used to pump up the water from the underground or trigger the flow of water using electrical energy but does not on its product water.
The generator works on the same technology except it pushes electrons in place of water. The magnet in the generator pushes particles using particular force which results in converting mechanical energy into electric energy.

The Science Behind Working of Generator

The generator works on the electromagnetic induction phenomena, which is explained by Michael Faraday. Michael Faraday discovered the theory of electromagnetic induction in 1831, which states that when a conductor is placed in a magnetic field, voltage is induced in it. It is the same mechanism in the generator which produces mechanical energy in the turbine. The internal combustion engine is the primary source of mechanical energy in the generator. When electric voltage is produced as output, a part of it flows into the coil which creates a magnetic field.

The Faradays law discovered the interaction of a magnetic field with an electric circuit to produce electromotive force. The phenomenon is termed as electromagnetic induction.

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction states that current will be induced in a conducting material when exposed to a magnetic field. The law of induction explains that the working principle of generators, inductors, motors and transformers. Faraday conducted an experiment using a magnet and coil and discovered the phenomenon of induction, and hence the law is named after him. During his investigation, he found that electromagnetic force is induced in the coil when the magnetic lines are passing through the conductor changes.

Faraday’s Experiment of Electromagnetic Induction

Science Behind How a Generator WorksIn this experiment, Faraday takes a coil, and a magnet connects the galvanometer. When the magnet is at rest there is no deflection shown by the needle in the galvanometer and is at zero position only. But, when the magnet is moved closer to the coil, the needle of the galvanometer shows a deflection in a specific direction.

However, holding the magnet in a stationery position does not record any deflection of the needle in the galvanometer, which means it returns to zero. Again, when the magnet is moved away from the coil in the opposite direction, there is a defection recorded in the galvanometer. But when left to remain in the same position, the needle points zero again. Similarly, when the magnet is kept stationary, and the coil is moved close to the magnet, the needle in the galvanometer deflects. The rapid change in the movement of the magnetic field, the higher is the EMF recorded in the coil.

From the above experiment, Michael Faraday concluded that whenever there is relative motion between a magnetic field and conductor the magnetic lines passing through the coil changes inducing a voltage across the coil. Making the above experiments as a basis, Michael Faraday formulated two laws on electromagnetic induction. These laws are known as Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction.

Faraday’s First Law

Science Behind How a Generator WorksChange in the magnetic field of a conductor will cause an electromagnetic force to be induced in the conductor and is called induced emf. And when the circuit is closed the current circulates in the circuit which is called induced current.

Faraday’s Second Law

Science Behind How a Generator WorksFaraday’s second law states that the magnitude of the electromagnetic force induced in the conductor is equal to the rate of change of magnetic field that links to the conductor.

Faraday’s laws are simple, basic and significant laws of electromagnetism. The law has its application in most of the machines that use electricity including generator, medical field, industries and others.

  • Faraday’s laws are the basis for the functioning of power transformers.
  • Faraday’s law of mutual induction forms the basis for the working of an electrical generator.
  • The induction cooker which is the fastest way of cooking works on the principle of mutual induction. The change in the magnetic field is produced when the current flows through the copper wire coil below the cooking container. The changing magnetic field induces electromagnetic force resulting in creating a current which turns into heat.
  • The velocity of certain fluids is measured using an electromagnetic flowmeter.
  • The electromagnetic induction is also used in musical instruments such as electric violin etc.

Apart from the above electromagnetic induction is used in many other electrical appliances.

How to Protect Your Home Against Floods

How to Protect Your Home Against Floods?

Flood is a natural calamity that cannot be prevented even if there are preventive measures in place. Floods sometimes result in loss of lives and also massive damage to the properties of both residential and commercial. Protecting properties can prevent damage to a great extent. Assessing the risk of flooding is crucial before working on how to protect your homes from flooding.

Once you have ascertained the level of risk in your area, then the amount of protection your home needs can be worked out. It is advisable to keep in place flood protection preparations throughout the year than just in the rainy season. Because flooding is a natural calamity and cannot be forecasted well in advance for you to make preparations. Flooding preparations for a home generally involve;

  • installation of the flood control system,
  • closing the cracks in the home foundations with sealants
  • and any emergency management steps suggested by your flood insurance agent.

How to Protect Your Home Against FloodsWe have discussed below how to protect your homes from flooding to prevent damage to your valuable property. May it be your home or workplace safeguard your property is the best way to prevent loss or damage. Once you have assessed the risk of flooding, you need to ensure that your home is safe by taking proper steps to protect your home. Your home needs to be made flood-proof, which can involve anything from expensive renovations to low-cost essential maintenance. The protections steps that you take will depend on the current condition of your home and how prepared it is for flood protection.

Renovations to Your Home to Make it Floodproof

Whether you are building a new home in an area with flood risk or did not build one to protect it from floodwaters, then you may need to start renovating your home to make it flood-proof. Making your home flood-proof will minimize the damage. Here are a few things which you need to do to protect your home from floodwater.

Raising Your Home Level

Increasing the home level above the flood level is the best way of preventing flood water into your home. However, the process is quite expensive as you will need to raise on stilts and piers. But preventing floodwater from entering your home will save your home from potential damage.

Foundation Vents

Foundation vents are vents made into your property which help the water to flow through your home instead of stagnating, which relieves the water from exerting pressure on the walls. The vent provides both an inlet and outlet for the water to flow freely without being obstructed.

Sump Drainers

How to Protect Your Home Against FloodsElectrical sump drainers help you to drain out water from basements where floodwater generally pool up. Sump pumps can be operated using electricity outlet or can use battery backup. It is always advisable to have a sump pump with battery backup so that you can still drain water out when there is a power blackout.

Leak Detectors, Sealants and Coatings

Leak detectors helps you to locate leaks and cracks in the walls, roofs , window sills and doorways and seal them to prevent water from entering your home. Leakproof coatings and sealants can protect your home from water logging during floods. Waterproof coatings prevent walls from absorbing the moisture and sealants fill the gaps in foundation, windows, walls and doorways to avoid floodwaters entering into your home through the cracks.

Lifting the Electricity main box and switches to a safe height

Lifting your electricity mains, switch boxes and switches to a safe elevation above the flood level prevents short circuits and fuse outs in floods. Electrical wires in the water can result in significant damage to the property.

Check Valves on Water Pipes

It is not uncommon during floods that sewage water enters the regular water supply pipes resulting in sewage water entering pipes of homes. Installing check valves on the water pipes helps you to cut out sewage water entering your daily water supply pipes. It is recommended to have gate valves installed as they are useful in sealing the pipe than flap valves.

Clay Soil for Titling Gardens

If your garden titles to your house during floods, then it can result in rainwater pooling around your home. Using a heavy soil with a high content of clay and sand will absorb the water at the same time, the surface water empties into a street gutter or other appropriate place.

Pointing out Downspouts Away from Your Home

How to Protect Your Home Against FloodsThe runoff water from your gutter should be pointed away from your house to ensure that the water is not pooled around your house. If water pools around corners of your home, it may cause leaks in the basement.
Above preventive measure can protect your home from water entering your home in case of floods.

However, in addition to the above, it is advisable to raise the level of appliances, both internal and external above the flood level to keep them safe and functional. Appliances such as air conditioners, generators, washing machines, dishwashers, drying machines and water heaters are few household appliances that need to raise to a safe level.

How to Increase the Energy Efficiency of Homes

How to Increase the Energy Efficiency of Homes?

Energy efficiency is nothing but the use of less energy to carry out the same job resulting in reducing waste of energy. There are several benefits of energy benefits, but most prominent among them are reducing greenhouse emissions, lowering the demand for energy imports and lowering household energy costs.

You can increase energy efficiency and save money when you take specific effective measures that reduce the load on the energy systems in the building. These include installing heating and venting systems that perfectly fits your household requirements, right size appliances as oversized appliances and equipment can result in increased costs and low performance.

How to Increase the Energy Efficiency of HomesWalls, doors, ceiling, attic and windows are five critical parts of the house that need to be focused on increasing the energy efficiency of homes. Heating equipment, appliances and lighting are the things that need to be targeted next. Environmentally friendly energy generation is the third and final things that need focus.

We have discussed below how to improve the energy efficiency of homes by paying attention to certain factors.

Insulation of Attic and Walls

Trapping the heat or coolness inside the house in summers and winters helps the system in effectively heating or cooling the home using less energy. Absence of wall insulation or cavities in the wall will result in consuming more energy to heat or cool the house. An unfinished attic is another area to focus on increasing energy efficiency, but an insulated attic, on the contrary, helps increase energy efficiency.

The energy efficiency of the house also depends on the type of material used for insulation, often inferior material results in consuming more energy as such materials are inferior in conducting the heat. Foam insulation, fibreglass and cellulose are few superior materials that increase energy efficiency.

Replacement/ Repair of Windows

How to Increase the Energy Efficiency of HomesOld and leaky windows in the home should be replaced in time with the latest energy efficiency models to increase energy efficiency. There are cost-effective energy-efficient windows available on the market, but window replacement may not always be cheap. But one should consider windows replacement as an investment, as it results in cost savings in the long term. If you want to increase your savings, then single glazed windows are the best.

Boiler Upgrade

Upgrading your old and inefficient boilers is a great way to improve the energy efficiency of your home. Inefficient boilers may add up to your energy bills. Upgrading them with the advanced energy-efficient boilers can save you the right amount on energy bills in the long run. 60% of carbon emissions in a home with the gas heating system is emitted from boilers, so by having an energy-efficient boiler reduces the emissions significantly. The energy efficiency of boilers are rated from A to G; A is energy efficient G is the least energy efficient. If the boiler at your home is not energy efficient, then it will be wise to consider it is replacing it with the energy-efficient one to save on your energy bills. One way to do this is to install a gas tankless water heater in your house which is one of the most energy efficient water heater methods and is a much better way to heat water than a normal boiler.

Energy-Efficient Air Conditioners

How to Increase the Energy Efficiency of HomesAir conditioners at home are used for cooling indoors and retaining the required moisture in the room by removing the heat. The air conditioner is operated throughout the winters needs to be energy efficient if you want to save on energy bills. The unit needs to be selected based on the area that needs to be cooled and the outside temperature. Having an energy-efficient rated air conditioner unit installed can save you a considerable amount in the long term.

 

Water-Saving Showerhead

Bathtubs can use a lot of water and showerheads can cut down water consumption significantly. But more extended baths in electric shower heads can result in higher energy consumption which adds up to your energy bills. A water-saving showerhead will help you to cut down on the amount of water and energy consumption.

Touchless Kitchen Faucets

Investing in a touchless kitchen faucet is another way to save water and energy in your home. Having a touchless faucet that automatically turns the water off when you are no longer using it will save your home water in the long run.  There are of course other benefits of touchless kitchen faucets but what sets them apart is the eco factor that we deem very important.

Invest In Eco-Kettles

Electric kettles are the most common household appliances that are used to boil the water for making hot beverages. If you are the one that boil kettle full of water o make a cup of coffee, then you probably are wasting a lot of energy. You can save on energy by heating only required water by investing in an eco-kettle which uses 30% energy compared to other kettles. Just like eco-kettles, choosing other household appliances such as washing machines, television sets, dishwashers, clothes dryers and refrigerators that are energy efficient increases the energy efficiency of homes.

Solar Panels

How to Increase the Energy Efficiency of HomesFinally generating green energy will prevent households from importing power. Solar panels are the best way to generate electricity to meet household requirements. Making green energy not only lowers the demand for energy imports but also saves you a lot on your energy bills. In most developed countries, solar panel installation for homes is supported the government funding. Energy generated from solar panels can be used for heating water in the tanks which accounts for the significant household power consumption. The advanced solar panels generate electricity even when it is cloudy outside.

Thick Curtain Insulators

Although energy efficiency can be increased by using double glazed doors and windows, using thick curtains for doors and windows can prevent heat or cooling from escaping your home. Thick door curtains are simple solutions to increase energy efficiency. Today thick insulation curtains are readily available on the market in standard sizes for you to buy and put them to use instantly. The thick insulating curtains help you to save the right amount on energy bills.

Smart Thermostats

Do you know how much energy each appliance and equipment consumes when you operate it? Probably not. When you know how much energy is consumed and what your energy bill is likely to be, then you will try to use it watchfully and try to cut down on the usage. Smart thermostats are the best way to increase energy efficiency. The meter displays energy consumption in your home as and when you are using the appliances, conditioning and heating units.

Drink a Glass of Lemon Water in The Morning

Science Tells What Happens to Your Body When You Drink a Glass of Lemon Water in The Morning

A glass of lemon water in the morning is an age-old remedy suggested mostly by our elders to treat various ailments. Yes, certainly there are numerous health benefits of lemon water and science explains the benefits by telling us what exactly lemon water does to the body.

So, What Exactly is Lemon Water?

Drink a Glass of Lemon Water in The MorningLemon water is lemon juice squeezed into a glass of warm water. Nowadays people add other ingredients to the drink such as mint leaves, lemon rind and others but consuming lemon juice with water is just fine to avail the benefits. But the amount of lemon juice depends on the person’s taste and likes. But make sure the drink is not boiling as excess heat can compromise on the nutritional values.

Whether it is for health reasons, beauty reasons or taste reasons, lemon water has become an extremely popular beverage among people of all ages. The drink claims to boost the immune system, improve energy levels, mood and metabolism. Let us now see what benefits your body gets from lemon water according to science.

Improves Digestive Health

A healthy digestive system contributes a lot to stay healthy. Lemon is rich in pectin fibre which is good for colon health. A glass of lemon juice with warm water will facilitate natural bowel movement resulting in the elimination of toxic waste from the body.

Maintains Balance of Minerals in the body

Lemon water helps in maintaining the right balance of minerals in the body. Much before energy drinks and rehydration salts were launched, lemon water was in use to replace nutrients lost in the body due to dehydration. Any exercise will result in loss of minerals like sodium, chloride, potassium etc. through sweat. These minerals can be replaced and rebalanced quickly and effectively by drinking lemon water.

Promotes Eye Health

The citrus fruits are packed with antioxidants and vitamin c, which work together to promote eye health. Lemons are rich in Vitamin C and Antioxidants which protect eyes against macular degeneration and cataracts.

Keeps Your Skin Young and Supple

Drink a Glass of Lemon Water in The MorningWe all know that water is the key to keep your body hydrated and also the skin. Dry skin is often the result of lack of proper hydration to the skin. While a glass of water every morning keeps your skin hydrated, adding lemon juice energizes your skin. The lemon juice rich in oxidants detoxifies the skin and helps in fighting wrinkles and blemishes to give your skin a smooth and evenly toned look.

Boosts Liver Health

Maintaining good a healthy liver is crucial for your overall health, and lemon water works great to maintain optimum liver health. Lemon water helps in improving enzyme release in the liver to flush out toxins from the body. The citric acid in the lemon juice helps in removing harmful bacteria from the body and promotes good health.

Helps Optimal functioning of Brain, Heart and Kidney

Potassium is an essential mineral that our body requires to maintain the optimum health of crucial organs. Potassium is needed quantities can facilitate top-level functioning of brain, heart, kidneys and muscles. Most of us know that bananas are rich potassium what we least know is that lemons are also rich in potassium. Lemon water rich in potassium promotes heart, kidney, brain and muscle health.

Prevents you from Cold and Flu

Lemon is rich in Vitamin C is reputed for fighting the cold, flu and other immunity related issues. Drinking lemon water every day reduces the incidence of colds, flu and other viral infections and helps you stay healthy even in coldest seasons.

Fights Inflammation

Drink a Glass of Lemon Water in The MorningThere are reasons why inflammation occurs in the body other than injury. Excess deposits of uric acid can also cause inflammation. Excess uric acid may be a result of high acidic levels of the body, and the acidic condition needs to be neutralized by consuming alkaline foods. Lemon juice is highly alkaline and helps in neutralizing the acids to fight inflammation by reducing uric acid deposits. So drinking a glass of lemon water regularly will bust inflammation.

Maintain PH Balance in the Body

The acidic nature of the lemons, but once they are absorbed into the body fluids, it tends to have an alkalizing effect on the body tissues. If you are wondering it is a good thing then yes because too much of acidity in the body can lead to the development of various diseases such as high cholesterol, diabetes and even cancers. Drinking lemon water regularly helps in neutralizing acids in the body tissue to prevent infections.

Improves Metabolism

Do you know that low metabolism is the cause of obesity in most people? Lower metabolism rates facilitate fat deposits in the body in fat prone areas such as abdomen, thighs and lower back areas. Lemon is an excellent accompaniment for diet changes and exercise for weight loss. The pectin fiber present in lemon increases metabolism and also reduces hunger cravings. Lemon water daily will help you to lose weight by boosting metabolism.

Super Charges Your Body

Drinking lemon water can give an energy boost and can replace other caffeinated beverages that are used for supercharging your brain. Lemon helps you to have a refreshing and relaxing day apart from increasing your alertness throughout the day.

With the above-discussed benefits, you are convinced to include lemon water in your daily routine. But if you are lazy to squeeze lemon juice every morning for drinking lemon water then, fortunately, there are citrus juicers available just for people like you.

How Citrus Juicers Makes Your Job Easy?

Two types of citrus juicers are available in the market; manual and electric. The modern citrus juicers are powered by electricity and can squeeze every possible drop from lemons in just a few minutes. Now you can wake up every morning to have refreshing lemon water with lemon juice extracted from freshly squeezed lemons easily to avail numerous health benefits.