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IUPAC GC Subcommittee
 
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

 

From P.T. Anastas and J.C. Warner. "Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice." Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.

1. It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean-up waste after it is formed.

2. Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process to the final product.

3. Whenever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.

4. Chemical methods should be designed to preserve efficacy of function while reducing toxicity.

5. The use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary whenever possible and, innocuous when used.

6. Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.

7. A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting wherever technically and economically practicable.

8. Unnecessary derivatization (blocking group, protection/deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be avoided whenever possible.

9. Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.

10. Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products.

11. Analytical methods needed to be further developed to allow for real time, in process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.


12. Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen so as to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.

 
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